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Do you have an open MCT4 backdoor, or you have a low back pain?

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The name of this blog, MCT for health, is originally derived from the name of medium chain triglyceride, MCT oil. However, as I am gradually finding connections with lactate metabolism, it could easily be derived from MCT transporters, such a passable protein gates in cell membranes. I follow up on the previous post , which clarifies the behavior of fat cells and the causes of their dysfunction, which is manifested by a change in glucose metabolism and lactate production, thus triggering pseudohypoxia . So we explained that triggering these mechanisms in the fat cell is not desirable, but it is a rescue mechanism to deal with the extremely high insulin sensitivity caused by excessive polyunsaturated fats. Today, however, we find out that the exact same mechanism in another tissue is completely fine and beneficial. We even find that it causes problems when pseudohypoxia doesn't start, when the gates of MCT4 transporters don't open. As you can see, nature has given us processes t

From pyruvate to lactate or from lactate to pyruvate? That is the Question!

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Lactic acid, or lactate (not to be confused with lactose - milk sugar) is such an ugly duckling, pushed aside. It is considered by most to be an insignificant product of tired muscles that tells us when we have had enough and that we should rest. However, this is a very narrow view. I have already mentioned here that we have an immediate supply of glucose in the blood equivalent to only about one teaspoon of sugar. It is said that we have up to 20 times more lactate in our blood! Well, I don't have proof of that, but it's certainly a fuel that needs to be reckoned with, not ignored. Every cell can convert lactate to pyruvate and vice versa. Don't you know what pyruvate is? This is a product of glucose processing in the cell. Once the cell takes in glucose, it tags it with a phosphate tag and the glucose can no longer escape from the cell. There is no going back for glucose. It will be converted to pyruvate. The fate of glucose in the cell is determined by many things. If we

How do free fatty acids affect the severity of a heart attack?

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In the previous two posts , I wrote about hypoxia and pseudohypoxia, i.e. the state of lack of oxygen or just the signaling of lack of oxygen in the tissues. I predicted that free long-chain fatty acids (abbreviation FFA or NEFA), by strongly modulating the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), would likely strongly influence oxygen deficiency signaling through the transcription factor HIF-1 α  whose proper and adequate stabilization requires some, not too little or too much hydrogen peroxide H2O2. Too high a peroxide level will be typical in pseudohypoxia, and too low will cause an insufficient and therefore potentially very dangerously low response to oxygen deficiency. The two conditions can be quite intertwined and can occur simultaneously in different tissues and also the conditions will depend heavily on the specific ones in the tissue. It seems that if, for example, the heart muscle suffers from insulin  resistance and therefore also a mild pseudohypoxia, it can s

Aging as progressive pseudohypoxia?

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We have already come across the concept of hypoxia here, it is a state of lack of oxygen. Every healthy cell can prepare for this condition  just in time, can turn on and off the necessary genes, and can easily survive a short-term or moderate lack of oxygen. But what is pseudohypoxia? We can imagine it so that the cell receives a signal that there is not enough oxygen and starts the necessary mechanisms. But in reality, this signal is false and can thus damage the cell.  The same phenomenon is also referred to as aerobic glycolysis or, according to its discoverer, as the Warburg effect. The authors of one study arrived at these considerations because they noticed a striking similarity in the behavior of aged cells and cells exposed to a lack of oxygen. But let's look at another study first. Graphical abstract, hypoxia (or even lack of reduced glutathione, my note) leads to stabilization of HIF-1 α  and thus suppression of beta oxidation of fats and glucose fermentation. Among oth

How does omega-6 vegetable oil confuse our cells?

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It will probably be a little less digestible today, but I need to sort out my thoughts. It is time to make a small inventory of how specifically polyunsaturated vegetable oils, especially linoleic omega-6, affect cellular signaling in obtaining energy from available fuels and thus confuse the cell so much that it begins to behave completely differently than in the burning of conventional animal fats. Let us now repeat what we already know clearly about linoleic acid: It devastates our reserves of reduced glutathione (GSH). Low levels of GSH strongly suppress the activity of the first mitochondrial complex of the electron transport chain, thus suppressing the production of energy from NADH molecules. Initially, it improves insulin resistance, thus reducing H2O2 levels. It reduces the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). It supports the beta-oxidation of unsaturated fats, the desaturation of saturated fats, ie the conversion of saturated fats to monounsaturated, the cleavag

Does vitamin C work against hypertension?

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Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a relatively mysterious disease, the causes of which are not entirely clear. If I understand the body as a self-healing intelligent system that, whatever it is controlled by, always tries to maintain a balance between processes, an increase in blood pressure must be the way to solve a fundamental problem. The body wouldn't just destroy itself. I just refuse to believe it, period. The physical principle of the origin and nature of blood pressure is clear, although there are doubters here as well. But I'll leave it aside now. The standard explanation is that the blood volume of the left ventricle is forced into the aorta and other adjacent arteries by compression of the heart. Their elasticity causes them to "inflate" slightly like a balloon and take over the volume of blood expelled by the heart. This "inflation" of the arteries increases the blood pressure and we measure it as the so-called systolic pressure. This pr

How to make fructose in the liver, but you better not do it!

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In one of my previous posts , I looked at the work of Richard Johnson, who claims that we have something like a fat switch in our body. While it is turned off, the body works normally and burns fat. If you inadvertently turn it on, you will store more fat and burn less. We also learned from him that the easiest way to turn it on is to quickly flood the liver with sugars dissolved in water, ie with the help of sweet drinks. If we start to look in more detail at what process we will actually start, we will find this interesting enzymatic pathway (production line), which resides in liver cells and other organs that have glucose intake independent of insulin levels. This enzymatic pathway can convert glucose, generally considered a good and harmless sugar, into fructose, which according to research is considered to be one of the causes of metabolic problems such as obesity, diabetes, heart attack, etc. It is called the polyol pathway . Quotation from Wikipedia (you can skip it, if you wan